Migrating from 1.x to 2.0

Noda Time 2.0 contains a number of breaking changes. If you have a project which uses Noda Time 1.x and are considering upgrading to 2.0, please read the following migration guide carefully. In particular, there are some changes which are changes to execution-time behaviour, and won't show up as compile-time errors.

Parameter names

Some parameters have been renamed for consistency. This should not affect code that uses positional argument passing; code which uses named arguments will need to specify the new parameter name where there are changes. This does not affect binary compatibility.

Obsolete members

A few members in 1.x were already marked as obsolete, and they have now been removed. Code using these members will no longer compile. Two of these were simple typos in the name - fixing code using these is simply a matter of using the correct name instead:

  • Era.AnnoMartyrm should be Era.AnnoMartyrum
  • Period.FromMillseconds should be Period.FromMilliseconds

In addition, DateTimeZoneProviders.Default has been removed. It wasn't the default in any Noda Time code, and it's clearer to use the DateTimeZoneProviders.Tzdb member, which the Default member was equivalent to anyway.

Support for the resource-based time zone database format was removed in Noda Time 2.0. In terms of the public API, this just meant removing three TzdbDateTimeZoneSource constructors, and removing some documented edge cases where the legacy resource format didn't include as much information as the more recent "nzd" format. If you were previously using the resource format, just move to the "nzd" format, using the static factory members of TzdbDateTimeZoneSource.

Removed, renamed or now private members

The Instant(long) constructor is now private; use Instant.FromTicksSinceUnixEpoch instead. As the resolution of 2.0 is nanoseconds, a constructor taking a number of ticks since the Unix epoch is confusing. The static method is self-describing, and this allows the constructor to be rewritten for use within Noda Time itself.

The LocalTime.LocalDateTime property has been removed. It was rarely a good idea to arbitrarily pick the Unix epoch as the date, and usually indicates a broken design. If you still need this behaviour, you can easily construct a LocalDate for the Unix epoch and use the addition operator instead.

CalendarSystem.GetMaxMonth has been renamed to GetMonthsInYear, to match the equivalent method in System.Globalization.Calendar.

CenturyOfEra and YearOfCentury have both been removed. We considered it unlikely that they were being used, and the subtle differences between the Gregorian and ISO calendar systems were almost certainly not helpful. Users who wish to compute the century and year of century in a particular form can do so reasonably easily in their own code. With this change in place, the distinction between the ISO calendar system and Gregorian-4 is only maintained for simplicity, compatibility and consistency; the two calendars behave identically.

Duration.FromStandardWeeks has been removed on the grounds that it was quite odd; it's unusual to want a duration of a standard week - you can always just multiply by 7 and call Duration.FromDays instead.

The word Standard has been removed from the members of NodaConstants and also from Duration.FromStandardDays (so that's now Duration.FromDays). If it was annoying for the Noda Time developers, it was probably annoying for users too... the meaning is exactly the same, and the documentation still talks about "standard" days/weeks, but having it in the names was a bit obnoxious, particularly in code which used a lot of constants.

Factory methods in CalendarSystem which either didn't take any parameters (GetPersianCalendar) or which no longer support those parameters (GetCopticCalendar, GetJulianCalendar) have been converted into properties. So for example, the equivalent of CalendarSystem.GetJulianCalendar(4) is now just CalendarSystem.Julian.

Methods and properties on Instant to do with the Unix epoch have been renamed to be consistent with methods introduced in DateTimeOffset in .NET 4.6:

  • FromSecondsSinceUnixEpoch() is now FromUnixTimeSeconds()
  • FromMillisecondsSinceUnixEpoch() is now FromUnixTimeMilliseconds()
  • FromTicksSinceUnixEpoch() is now FromUnixTimeTicks()
  • The Ticks property is now ToUnixTimeTicks()
  • There are two new methods, ToUnixTimeSeconds() and ToUnixTimeMilliseconds()

Static properties on the pattern classes have been renamed to remove the Pattern suffix. For example, LocalDateTimePattern.ExtendedIsoPattern is now just LocalDateTimePattern.ExtendedIso.

The IsoDayOfWeek properties in LocalDate, LocalDateTime, OffsetDateTime and ZonedDateTime are now just called DayOfWeek. The previous numeric DayOfWeek properties have been removed, but in all cases if you were actually calling them, you can just cast the IsoDayOfWeek to int and always get the same result, as all calendar systems use ISO days of the week.

The LocalTime constructors accepting tick values (tick-of-second and tick-of-millisecond) have been converted to static factory methods (FromHourMinuteSecondTick and FromHourMinuteSecondMillisecondTick).

The LocalDateTime constructors accepting tick values have been removed. To construct a LocalDateTime value with a value more fine-grained than milliseconds, either construct separate LocalDate and LocalTime values and add them together, or construct a LocalDateTime to the nearest second (or millisecond) and use PlusTicks or PlusNanoseconds to construct the final one.

Properties related to week-years (e.g. WeekOfWeekYear) have been removed, in favour of a more flexible system. See the week-years guide for more information. In most cases, the fix is to use WeekYearRules.Iso.GetWeekOfWeekYear(date) etc..

The IClock.Now property has been replaced by IClock.GetCurrentInstant(). This is both clearer in meaning, and a more appropriate member type. The two calls are absolutely equivalent in meaning.


The Years, Months, Weeks and Days properties of Period (and PeriodBuilder) are now int rather than long properties. Any property for those units outside the range of int could never be added to a date anyway, as it would immediately go out of range. This change just makes that clearer, and embraces the new "int for dates, long for times" approach which applies throughout Noda Time 2.0. The indexer for PeriodBuilder is still of type long, but it will throw an ArgumentOutOfRangeException for values outside the range of int when setting date-based units.

Normalization of a period which has time units which add up to a "days" range outside the range of int will similarly fail.


In Noda Time 1.x, Offset was implemented as a number-of-milliseconds. Sub-second time zone offsets aren't used in practice (modulo a very small number of historical cases), and in any case aren't supported by the TZDB or BCL source data that we are able to use, so we supported more precision than was useful.

In Noda Time 2.0, Offset is implemented as a number-of-seconds. This should be mostly transparent, though Offset.FromMilliseconds() will now effectively truncate to the whole number of seconds. (Similarly, Offset.FromTicks() will now truncate to the whole number of seconds rather than a whole number of milliseconds.) The range of Offset is also reduced from +/- 23:59:59.999 to +/- 18:00:00. The range reduction should have no practical consequence for real situations, but test code which tried to use offsets between 18 and 24 hours ahead of or behind UTC will need to be adjusted.

As a consequence of this change, offset formatting and parsing patterns no longer support the f or F custom patterns, nor the f (full) standard pattern. Attempting to use these will generate an error, and attempting to parse Offset (or OffsetDateTime) values containing fractional second offsets will fail (though as mentioned above, these values do not tend to exist in practice).


The Coptic and Julian calendars no longer support variants based on "minimum number of days in the first week of the week year" - it was felt this was really only important for the Gregorian calendar. This affects the calls used to fetch Coptic/Julian calendars, the ID in formatted text, and also serialized values.

As noted above (when talking about removed members), the ISO calendar is now equivalent to the Gregorian 4 calendar.


Binary serialization: there is no compatibility between 1.x and 2.0. If binary data has been persisted, it will need to be converted to the 2.0 format. We don't currently provide any tools to simplify this, but if it turns out to be a significant problem, please post on the mailing list and we'll see what we can do.

Default values

The default values of some structs have changed, from returning the Unix epoch to returning January 1st 1AD (at midnight where applicable):

  • LocalDate
  • LocalDateTime
  • ZonedDateTime (in UTC, as in 1.x)
  • OffsetDateTime (with an offset of 0, as in 1.x)

We recommend that you avoid relying on the default values at all - partly for the sake of clarity.

Text handling

Year specifiers

In version 1.x, the y format specifier meant "absolute year" (which may be negative) and the Y format specifier meant "year of era". Unfortunatly, this is not compatible with the BCL, where y really means year of era. Under most calendars this is irrelevant in the BCL, as most only support a single era - but in Noda Time, the default calendar system (Gregorian) supports dates before 1CE. (Even so, most users will never create or use dates before 1CE.)

In version 2.0, y means "year of era", and u means "absolute year". This use of u is in line with Unicode TR-35 although there are other aspects of format specifiers which aren't - 2.0 is not embracing TR-35 universally, preferring BCL-compatibility, but the BCL doesn't have any "absolute year" specifier.

For most users this change will be invisible, as it is anticipated that most users only use values where absolute year and year of era are the same value. However, anyone using Y in their format patterns will see an exception thrown, and anyone using y but formatting a value where the year is not the same as the year of era will see different results.

One unfortunate side-effect of this is that the normal BCL handling - using the patterns specified by the BCL - gives ambiguous values. For example, new LocalDate(-50, 1, 1).ToString() will return something like "01 January 0051" instead of the previous "01 January -0050". Users whose applications are likely to encounter dates before 1CE should consider using custom format patterns with the u specifier instead of y.

Noda Time's ISO-8601 pattern handling will provide the same text values as before, as the patterns have been updated to use u. This includes the patterns used in NodaTime.Serialization.JsonNet.

In summary:

Value Noda Time 1.x Noda Time 2+ BCL
Year of era Y y y
Absolute year y u n/a

Formatting changes

  • Text formatting and parsing always uses + and - now for the positive and negative signs, instead of asking the NumberFormatInfo from the culture. (These are the characters used by all standard cultures, so this will only change behavior when using a custom culture.)

Other changes

The numeric standard patterns for Instant and Offset have been removed, with no direct equivalent. These were not known to be useful, felt "alien" in various ways, and cause issues within the implementation. If you need these features - possibly in a specialized way - please contact the mailing list and we may be able to suggest alternative implementations to meet your specific requirements.

Patterns no longer allow ASCII letters (a-z, A-Z) to act as literals when they're not escaped or quoted. Quoting make the intention more explicit, and avoids unintended use of a literal when a specifier was expected (e.g. a date pattern of "yyyy-mm-dd"). One exception here is 'T', which is allowed for date/time patterns only - so a date/time pattern of "yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss" is still acceptable for ISO-8601, for example. If this change breaks your code, simply escape or quote the literals within the pattern.

When specifying a BCL IFormatProvider, only CultureInfo and DateTimeFormatInfo values can be used; any other non-null reference will now throw an exception. When a DateTimeFormatInfo is provided, the invariant culture is used for resource lookups and text comparisons. The previous behavior was to use the current culture for anything other than a CultureInfo value. To obtain the equivalent behavior, simply pass provider as CultureInfo to end up with a null argument for non-CultureInfo values, which will still use the current culture.

Lenient resolver changes

In 2.0, the LenientResolver, which is used by DateTimeZone.AtLeniently and LocalDateTime.InZoneLeniently, was changed to more closely match real-world usage.

  • For ambiguous values, the lenient resolver used to return the later of the two possible instants. It now returns the earlier of the two possible instants. For example, if 01:00 is ambiguous, it used to return 1:00 standard time and it now will return 01:00 daylight time.

  • For skipped values, the lenient resolver used to return the instant corresponding to the first possible local time following the "gap". It now returns the instant that would have occurred if the gap had not existed. This corresponds to a local time that is shifted forward by the duration of the gap. For example, if values from 02:00 to 02:59 were skipped, a value of 02:30 used to return 03:00 and it will now return 03:30.

If you require the behavior of the 1.x implementation, you can create a custom resolver that combines the ReturnLater and ReturnStartOfIntervalAfter resolvers. For example:

var resolver = Resolvers.CreateMappingResolver(
    Resolvers.ReturnLater, Resolvers.ReturnStartOfIntervalAfter);

You can use this resolver as an argument to LocalDateTime.InZone instead of calling LocalDateTime.InZoneLeniently, or to DateTimeZone.ResolveLocal instead of calling DateTimeZone.AtLeniently

We would strongly encourage you to carefully evaluate whether you truly need the old behavior or not before making these compatibility changes, as we have found that the new behavior aligns more closely with most real-world scenarios.